Senin, 13 Agustus 2007

Indonesia Raya 3 Stanza

Stanza 1:

Indonesia Tanah Airkoe Tanah Toempah Darahkoe
Di sanalah Akoe Berdiri Djadi Pandoe Iboekoe
Indonesia Kebangsaankoe Bangsa Dan Tanah Airkoe
Marilah Kita Berseroe Indonesia Bersatoe

Hidoeplah Tanahkoe Hidoeplah Negrikoe
Bangsakoe Ra'jatkoe Sem'wanja
Bangoenlah Djiwanja Bangoenlah Badannja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Tanahkoe Negrikoe Jang Koetjinta
Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Hidoeplah Indonesia Raja

Stanza 2:

Indonesia Tanah Jang Moelia Tanah Kita Jang Kaja
Di sanalah Akoe Berdiri Oentoek Slama-Lamanja
Indonesia Tanah Poesaka P'saka Kita Semoenja
Marilah Kita Mendo'a Indonesia Bahagia

Soeboerlah Tanahnja Soeboerlah Djiwanja
Bangsanja Ra'jatnja Sem'wanja
Sadarlah Hatinja Sadarlah Boedinja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Tanahkoe Negrikoe Jang Koetjinta
Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Hidoeplah Indonesia Raja

Stanza 3:

Indonesia Tanah Jang Seotji Tanah Kita Jang Sakti
Di sanalah Akoe Berdiri 'Njaga Iboe Sedjati
Indonesia Tanah Berseri Tanah Jang Akoe Sajangi
Marilah Kita Berdjandji Indonesia Abadi

S'lamatlah Ra'jatnja S'lamatlah Poetranja
Poelaoenja Laoetnja Sem'wanja
Madjoelah Negrinja Madjoelah Pandoenja
Oentoek Indonesia Raja

Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Tanahkoe Negrikoe Jang Koetjinta
Indonesia Raja Merdeka Merdeka Hidoeplah Indonesia Raja.

Minggu, 12 Agustus 2007


The gamelan orchestra, based on metallic percussion with winds and drums, is perhaps the form which is most readily identified as being distinctly "Javanese" by outsiders. In various forms, it is ubiquitous to Southeast Asia. In Java, the full gamelan also adds a bowed string instrument (the rebab, a name illustrative of Islamic influence) and voices. The rebab is one of the main melodic instruments of the ensemble (together with the xylophone "gendér") and is often played by the senior musician. Voices consist of male and female choruses, together with soloists; however, the voices are not usually featured in court gamelan (as opposed to wayang kulit, shadow puppet theatre) and are supposed to be heard discreetly in the middle of the orchestral sound. In these abstract pieces, the words are largely secondary to the music itself.

There are two scales in Javanese gamelan music, "slendro" (pentatonic) and "pelog" (heptatonic in full, but focussing on a pentatonic group). Tuning is not standard, rather each gamelan set will have a distinctive tuning. A complete gamelan consists of a pair of sets, one tuned in each of the scales and intended to be played together in many instances. Different gamelan sets have different sonorities, and are used for different pieces of music; many are very old, and used for only one specific piece. Musical forms are defined by the rhythmic cycles. These consist of major cycles subdivided by smaller cycles, each marked by the striking of successively smaller gongs. The melodic interplay takes place within this framework (technically called "colotomic structure"). There are also distinct melodic modes ("patet") within the division of scale.

Music of Indonesia

Tembang sunda

Tembang sunda, usually called seni mamaos cianjuran, or just cianjuran, is a form of sung poetry which arose in the colonial-era Kabupaten of Cianjur. It was first known as an aristocratic art; one cianjuran composer was R.A.A Kusumahningrat (Dalem Pancaniti), ruler of Cianjur (1834 - 1862). The instruments of Cianjuran are kacapi Indung, kacapi rincik and suling or bamboo flute, and rebab for salendro compositions. The lyrics are typically sung in free verse, but a more modern version, panambih, is metrical.

Kecapi suling

Kecapi suling is a type of instrumental music that is highly improvisational and popular in parts of Java. It is related to tembang sunda.


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The most popular and famous form of Indonesian music is gamelan, an ensemble of tuned percussion instruments that include metallophones, drums, gongs and spike fiddles along with bamboo flutes. Similar ensembles are prevalent throughout Indonesia and Malaysia, but gamelan is from Java, Bali and Lombok. There are rivalries between different regions' variations of gamelan, especially Java and Bali.

Central Java

Central gamelan is intricate and meticulously laid out. The central melody is played on a metallophone in the center of the orchestra, while the front section plays elaboration and ornamentation on the melody, and, at the back, the gongs slowly punctuate the music. There are two tuning systems - the 5-tone slendro scale and the 7-tone pelog scale. Unlike Western music, there is no standard tuning system. Each Gamelan is tuned to itself, and the intervals between notes on the scale vary between ensembles.

The metallophones cover four octaves, and include types like the slenthem, demung, saron panerus and balungan. The soul of the gamelan is believed to reside in the large gong, or gong ageng. Other gongs are tuned to each note of the scale and include ketuk, kenong and kempul. The front section of the orchestra is diverse, and includes rebab, suling, siter, bonang and gambang. Male choruses (gerong) and female (pesindhen) solo vocalists are common.


Gamelan is rooted in Hinduism and Buddhism, though the island of Java is almost entirely Muslim today. Islam arrived in the 15th century, filtered through Hindustani Indians. With the arrival of the Dutch colonizers, a number system called kepatihan was developed to record the music. Music and dance at the time was divided into several styles based on the four main courts in the area -- Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Pakualaman and Mangkunagaran. It is a universal acknowledgment that gamelans are highly honoured.

West Java

West Java, or Sunda, has a diverse brand of gamelan. Gamelan Degung, gamelan salendro and tembang sunda are three primary types.

Gamelan salendro

Gamelan salendro is used primarily to accompany classical or more modern social dances, and is considered a low-class form. The 20th century saw a rise in the popularity and importance of female singers.

East Java

Gamelan from eastern Java is less well-known than central or western parts of the island. Perhaps most distinctive of the area is the extremely large gamyak drum.


The Osinger minority in Java are known for social music for weddings and other celebrations, called gandrung, as well as angklung, played by young amateur boys, which is very similar to Balinese gamelan..

Pop and folk music

Indonesian pop and folk is quite diverse, embracing rock, house, hip hop and other genres, as well as distinctly Indonesian forms. There are several kinds of "ethnic" pop music, generally grouped together as Pop Daerah (regional pop). These include Pop Sunda, Pop Minang, Pop Batak, and others. The regional pop musics mostly use local languages and a mix of western and regional style music and instruments.


Kroncong has been evolving since the arrival of the Portuguese, who brought with them European instruments. By the early 1900s, it was considered a low-class urban music. This changed in the 1930s, when the rising Indonesian film industry began incorporating kroncong, and then even more so in the mid- to late 1940s, when it became associated with the struggle for independence.

Perhaps the most famous song in the kroncong style is Bengawan Solo, written in 1940 by Gesang Martohartono, a Solonese musician. Written during the Japanese Imperial Army occupation of the island in World War II, the song (about the Bengawan Solo River, Java's longest and most important river) became widely popular among the Javanese, and then later nationally when recordings were broadcast over the local radio stations. The song also became quite popular with the Japanese soldiers, and when they returned to Japan at the end of the war re-recordings of it (by Japanese artists) became best-sellers. Over the years it has been re-released many times by notable artists, mainly within Asia but also beyond, and in some places it is seen as typifying Indonesian music.

Gesang himself remains the most renowned exponent of the style, which although it is seen now as a somewhat starchy and "dated" form is still popular among large segments of the population, particularly the older generation.

Langgam jawa

There is a style of kroncong native to Surakarta (Solo) called langgam jawa, which fuses kroncong with the gamelan seven-note scale.

Tembang jawa

Similar in style is tembang jawa. Perhaps its greatest current star is Didi Kempot.

Gambang kromong

Early in the 20th century, kroncong was used in a type of theater called komedi stanbul; adapted for this purpose, the music was called gambang kromong.


Dangdut is a form of dance music that has been popular since the mid-1970s. Dangdut is based around the singers, and stars include Rhoma Irama and Elvy Sukaesih (the King and Queen of Dangdut), along with Inul Daratista, Evie Tamala, Mansyur S, A. Rafiq, and Fahmy Shahab.


Jaipongan is a very complex rhythmic dance music from Sunda. The rhythm is liable to change seemingly randomly, making dancing difficult for most listeners. Its instruments are entirely from Sunda, completely without imported instruments from the West, China, Japan or elsewhere. It was invented by artists like Gugum Gumbira after Sukarno prohibited rock and roll and other western genres.

Qasidah modern

Qasidah is an ancient Arabic word for religious poetry accompanied by chanting and percussion. Qasidah modern adapts this for pop audiences.


Gambus literally means oud, referring to a type of lute. It is used to denote a type of orchestra and the music it plays, believed to be introduced by Muslim settlers from Yemen. Though popular among Arabs in Indonesia, it has gained little popularity elsewhere.

Bengawan Solo

Bengawan Solo is a famous Indonesian song about the Bengawan Solo River, which flows through central and eastern Java, Indonesia and is that island's longest river.

The song describes the legendary river in a poetic and nostalgic way, that it is surrounded by mountains, its sources are near the city of Surakarta, that it ends in the sea, and that the merchant class always makes use of it.

Written in 1940 by Gesang Martohartono, it is in the local kroncong style, a popular folk style with influences from Portuguese. The Japanese, who occupied the country during World War II, brought the song with them to Japan after returning from the war. There, and also in the rest of Asia and later worldwide, the song became very famous.

The song's widespread popularity began soon after its composition, and locally it is strongly associated with the period of war occupation and the society of the times. In 1940 Gesang, then a young, destitute and untrained musician, composed the song on a bamboo flute and began to sing it at local functions and gatherings in his hometown of Surakarta. It soon became well-known and liked among the local Javanese community; the song then achieved national acclaim after it was broadcast to a wider audience by various radio stations.

The melodies of the song also appealed to both the occupying Japanese soldiers, and the non-Indonesian prisoners (mainly Dutch civilians) in the internment camps. The song was taken back to Japan by the returning soldiers, where it (with the lyrics translated to Japanese) gained great popularity after various singers such as Toshi Matsuda released recorded versions of it which became best-sellers. The song has become almost synonymous with the perception of Indonesian music in Japan.

In 1991, a group of appreciative Japanese war veterans arranged for a statue of Martohartono to be erected in a park in Surakarta. Gesang himself was still resident in the city, now a nationally renowned figure[1].

Very many artists have recorded the song, among whom are Waldjina, Toshi Matsuda, Anneke Grönloh, Rebecca Pan and Frances Yip.

"Bengawan Solo" is a popular name given to restaurants and businesses, in reminiscence of the song.